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21 December 1995 Augmented reality: a class of displays on the reality-virtuality continuum
Paul Milgram, Haruo Takemura, Akira Utsumi, Fumio Kishino
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Proceedings Volume 2351, Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies; (1995) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.197321
Event: Photonics for Industrial Applications, 1994, Boston, MA, United States
Abstract
In this paper we discuss augmented reality (AR) displays in a general sense, within the context of a reality-virtuality (RV) continuum, encompassing a large class of `mixed reality' (MR) displays, which also includes augmented virtuality (AV). MR displays are defined by means of seven examples of existing display concepts in which real objects and virtual objects are juxtaposed. Essential factors which distinguish different MR display systems from each other are presented, first by means of a table in which the nature of the underlying scene, how it is viewed, and the observer's reference to it are compared, and then by means of a three dimensional taxonomic framework comprising: extent of world knowledge, reproduction fidelity, and extent of presence metaphor. A principal objective of the taxonomy is to clarify terminology issues and to provide a framework for classifying research across different disciplines.
© (1995) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Paul Milgram, Haruo Takemura, Akira Utsumi, and Fumio Kishino "Augmented reality: a class of displays on the reality-virtuality continuum", Proc. SPIE 2351, Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies, (21 December 1995); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.197321
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