The carbon dioxide laser has been used for cutting and cauterizing tissue in a variety of surgical procedures by means of a dry-field air/tissue interface approach. Recently, a new wet-field CO2 laser technique has been developed and is being used successfully in humans to seal intraocular fibrovascular fronds and retinal tears at the time of vitrectomy, to close rubeotic vessels in the iris, and to excise fibrovascular fronds and epiretinal membranes in cases of severe diabetic retinopathy. Specialized wet-field CO2 photosurgical probes for use in gynecologic microsurgery have been developed and are being studied experimentally. Other potential applications include otolaryngologic micro-surgery, neurosurgery, and gastrointestinal and urologic wet-field surgery.
M. R. Smith,
James B. Miller,
"New Trends In Carbon Dioxide Laser Microsurgery", Proc. SPIE 0236, 1980 European Conf on Optical Systems and Applications, (15 May 1981); doi: 10.1117/12.959005; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.959005