The physical basis of shape memory alloy (SMA) behavior is outlined and a general one-dimensional constitutive law is reviewed, which is incorporated into a finite element procedure. A demonstration of two applications is given: a SMA pipe connector and a composite beam with embedded SMA wires. Another example is concerned with the use of SMAs for active control of a magnetic mechanical spring system which is currently under investigation for vibration isolation purposes.
Rolf Lammering, Rolf Lammering,
"Smart structures with shape memory alloy actuators", Proc. SPIE 2361, Second European Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, (13 September 1994); doi: 10.1117/12.184799; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.184799