10 April 1995 Physics of quasi-four-level lasers
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Abstract
Quasi four level lasers, such as the Ho:Tm lasers, have more physical processes associated with production of laser radiation than the more common four level lasers, such as the Nd lasers. Energy transfer processes, including up conversion and self quenching, as well as the existence of a nonnegligible thermal population in the lower laser level can be largely neglected in common four level lasers but are highly important in quasi four level lasers. Implications of these physical effects are explored with an emphasis on the Ho:Tm laser system.
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Norman P. Barnes, "Physics of quasi-four-level lasers", Proc. SPIE 2379, Solid State Lasers and Nonlinear Crystals, (10 April 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.206453; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.206453
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