7 April 1995 Sensitive sub-Doppler multiwave-mixing spectroscopy for flame and graphite furnace atomizers
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Resonant degenerate four-wave mixing is presented as an unusually sensitive nonlinear laser method that yields Doppler-free spectral resolution at trace-concentration levels even when using low laser power levels. Using a non-planar four-wave mixing optical setup, one can extract the signal beam from the input beams more easily, and hence, suppress the background noise more effectively and improve signal-to- noise ratios. Optical alignment is simple and convenient for this multiphoton setup. Sub-Doppler spectral resolution allows reliable measurement of many isotope and hyperfine lines using room-pressure flame atomizers, low-pressure discharge atomizers or room-pressure graphite furnace atomizers. While maintaining sub-Doppler spectral resolution, four-wave mixing still yields parts-per-trillion level detection sensitivity using these popular analytical atomizers. While flame atomizers offer convenient and fast sample introduction, low- pressure discharge atomizers offer better spectral resolution (i.e., sub-Doppler plus sub-Lorentzian), and graphite furnace atomizers yield lower atomizer background noise. Since laser power requirements are low (e.g., mW for CW lasers and nJ for pulsed lasers), many compact lasers (e.g., solid-state lasers) could be used in this simple yet sensitive nonlinear laser method.
© (1995) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Kenneth M. Weed, Kenneth M. Weed, Michael J. Maniaci, Michael J. Maniaci, William M. Tong, William M. Tong, "Sensitive sub-Doppler multiwave-mixing spectroscopy for flame and graphite furnace atomizers", Proc. SPIE 2385, Advanced Optical Methods for Ultrasensitive Detection, (7 April 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.206444; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.206444

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