30 May 1995 Stochastic theory of photon flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous anisotropic biological and artificial material
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Standard Monte Carlo methods used in photon diffusion score absorbed photons or statistical weight deposited within voxels comprising a mesh. An alternative approach to a stochastic description is considered for rapid surface flux calculations and finite medias. Matrix elements are assigned to a spatial lattice whose function is to score vector intersections of scattered photons making transitions into either the forward or back solid angle half spaces. These complete matrix elements can be related to the directional fluxes within the lattice space. This model differentiates between ballistic, quasi-ballistic, and highly diffuse photon contributions, and effectively models the subsurface generation of a scattered light flux from a ballistic source. The connection between a path integral and diffusion is illustrated. Flux perturbations can be effectively illustrated for tissue-tumor-tissue and for 3 layer systems with strong absorption in one or more layers. For conditions where the diffusion theory has difficulties such as strong absorption, highly collimated sources, small finite volumes, and subsurface regions, the computation time of the algorithm is rapid with good accuracy and compliments other description of photon diffusion. The model has the potential to do computations relevant to photodynamic therapy (PDT) and analysis of laser beam interaction with tissues.
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Steven David Miller, Steven David Miller, } "Stochastic theory of photon flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous anisotropic biological and artificial material", Proc. SPIE 2389, Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, (30 May 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.209956; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.209956

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