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22 May 1995 Scanning electron microscopy of holmium:YAG ablated lamellar bone
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Surface features of Holmium:YAG (2.12 micrometers ) ablated lamellar bone were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Porcine lamellar bone was harvested from the parietal and frontal regions of domestic pigs and machined into uniform specimens of 0.8 mm thickness. Ablation studies were performed under physiologic conditions (fresh bone) and on bone that had been serially dehydrated with graded alcohol baths. A Holmium:YAG laser at 4 Hz pulse repetition rate was used with an average energy density of 9 J/cm2 per pulse. Ablation was terminated at specific intervals corresponding to visibly observed changes in the ablation process. These included the initiation of ablation without plasma, the onset of plasma, prolonged plasma-mediated ablation, and through ablation to the other side of the specimen. Both wet and dry bone specimens were prepared for SEM. SEM was performed on selected ablation craters at magnifications varying from 75x to 5000x. Several features distinguish the ablation craters in wet versus dry bone. In general, ablated dehydrated bone exhibited very smooth surface features in which the heated bone appeared to melt and coalesce so as to form disc-like condensations. Often, successive discs were formed so that they stacked on top of each other. Fresh bone formed distinctly globular formations although some discs were also encountered at various energy settings. The overall globular structure was far more compact than that observed in the respective dehydrated samples. The results are discussed with relevance to ablation rates and surface temperature measurements.
© (1995) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Eric Mun-Wight Cheung, Brian Jet-Fei Wong M.D., Lih-Huei L. Liaw, Michael W. Berns, and Joseph Neev "Scanning electron microscopy of holmium:YAG ablated lamellar bone", Proc. SPIE 2391, Laser-Tissue Interaction VI, (22 May 1995);

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