Recent advances in high resolution color spatial light modulators and light weight optics together with application specific integrated circuits enable true stereoscopic visualization on a head mounted display (HMD). The development of precision stereo displays with comfortable long duration wear characteristics are critically dependent on incorporating key human factors into the HMD design. In this paper we discuss the development of a VGA format (640 X 480 pixel) full color video and graphics stereo display. Its primary application is as an element of an integrated, interactive visualization system for surgeons performing minimally invasive surgery and endoscopic laser surgery. Additional uses include endoscopic and open surgical training and rehearsal. The high resolution, wide field of view displays combined with true stereoscopic imagery enhances the surgeon's visualization, ability to navigate and manipulate in the surgical field.
Greg W. Schmidt,
Dale B. Osborn,
"Head-mounted display system for surgical visualization", Proc. SPIE 2396, Biomedical Optoelectronic Instrumentation, (1 May 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.208423; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.208423