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10 April 1995 Grating coupled surface emitters with enhanced surface emission efficiency
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The surface emission efficiency of grating coupled surface emitters, defined as the fraction of the guided mode power incident on the grating outcoupler that is emitted into air, is limited by diffraction into the substrate. This paper presents results from experimental and theoretical studies of various techniques to suppress substrate emission from second order gratings while simultaneously enhance the emission into air. These techniques include optimized rectangular gratings, blazed asymmetric gratings, and laser structures incorporating multilayer reflectors below the waveguide to redirect light diffracted into the substrate. Optimized rectangular gratings exhibit more than 60% surface emission efficiency under appropriate detuning conditions. Blazed asymmetric gratings demonstrate a strong dependence of the surface emission efficiency on the orientation of the grating with respect to the propagation direction of the guided optical mode under both resonant and nonresonant conditions. Lasers with multilayer reflectors show promising performance with a precisely adjusted phase of the reflected wave. Techniques for fine tuning the phase difference between the reflected wave and the wave diffracted into air are discussed. The fabrication techniques used to fabricate the high quality gratings required for high performance surface emitters are also reviewed.
© (1995) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Anders G. Larsson, Mats Hagberg, Niklas Eriksson, and Torgil Kjellberg "Grating coupled surface emitters with enhanced surface emission efficiency", Proc. SPIE 2398, Circular-Grating Light-Emitting Sources, (10 April 1995);

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