19 June 1995 Quasi-3D modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser operation
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Abstract
A comprehensive quasi-3D model is presented to calculate the CW output characteristics of planar vertical-cavity surface emitting laser diodes. The model contains the determination of the longitudinal and transverse mode structure and accounts for carrier diffusion effects in the active layer in a self-consistent manner. The use of a multiwave propagation technique for the identification of resonator eigenmodes or the computation of diffraction limited mirror reflectivities is explained in detail. A simplified approach is proposed for VCSELs exhibiting strong thermally induced index guiding. Thermal lensing and spatial hole burning effects leading to the onset of higher transverse order mode oscillation are theoretically explained. Quantitative agreement with experimental values for differential quantum efficiency and maximum single-mode output power is achieved by including size-dependent parasitic effects.
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Rainer Michalzik, Karl Joachim Ebeling, "Quasi-3D modeling of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser operation", Proc. SPIE 2399, Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices III, (19 June 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.212513; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.212513
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