17 March 1995 Proton-exchanged optical waveguides in Y-cut MgO:LiNbO3
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Proton exchanged planar optical waveguides have been fabricated and characterized in y-cut 4.5 mol% MgO:LiNbO3 crystals using adipic acid as the proton source. These waveguides exhibit a linear-step index profile with a surface index increase (Delta) n of 0.142 measured at the wavelength of 0.633 micrometers . The activation energy Q and the diffusion constant Do were measured to be 73.74 kJ/mol and 9.96 X 107 micrometers 2/h, respectively. The diffusion rate in y-cut substrates is faster than that in z-cut substrates.
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W. X. Hou, S. A. Zhao, Edwin Y. B. Pun, Po Sheun Chung, "Proton-exchanged optical waveguides in Y-cut MgO:LiNbO3", Proc. SPIE 2401, Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, (17 March 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.205037; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.205037

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