17 March 1995 Reverse proton exchange in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 for buried optical waveguides
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Abstract
We describe the fabrication and properties of optical waveguides formed in Z-cut proton exchanged LiTaO3 and X- and Z-cuts annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 structures by reverse proton exchange Li+ yields H+ in the LiNO3 and LiNO3-KNO3-NaNO3 melts at 280 - 340 degree(s)C. Surface waveguides, supporting ordinary polarization modes, as well as the buried waveguides for extraordinary polarization modes have been produced. The diffusion constant Do and the activation energy Q for the reverse proton exchange process in LiTaO3 were calculated to be 2.95 (DOT) 107 micrometers 2/h and 97.66 kJ/mol, respectively. A surface decrease of the ordinary refractive index (Delta) noequals -0.034 in H:LiTaO3 waveguides with (Delta) neequals 0.026 was estimated from direct measurements. The reverse proton exchange method was used to form buried waveguides in the well annealed proton exchanged lithium niobate waveguides. The different crystal phases were identified in APE LiNbO3. The relationships between extraordinary and ordinary index changes in APE LiNbO3 waveguides annealed at different temperatures (330 degree(s)C and 400 degree(s)C) were obtained.
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Yuri N. Korkishko, Yuri N. Korkishko, Vyacheslav A. Fedorov, Vyacheslav A. Fedorov, S. V. Katin, S. V. Katin, Andrey V. Kondrat'ev, Andrey V. Kondrat'ev, } "Reverse proton exchange in LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 for buried optical waveguides", Proc. SPIE 2401, Functional Photonic Integrated Circuits, (17 March 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.205027; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.205027
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