20 April 1995 How virtual reality works: illusions of vision in "real" and virtual environments
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Abstract
Visual illusions abound in normal vision--illusions of clarity and completeness, of continuity in time and space, of presence and vivacity--and are part and parcel of the visual world inwhich we live. These illusions are discussed in terms of the human visual system, with its high- resolution fovea, moved from point to point in the visual scene by rapid saccadic eye movements (EMs). This sampling of visual information is supplemented by a low-resolution, wide peripheral field of view, especially sensitive to motion. Cognitive-spatial models controlling perception, imagery, and 'seeing,' also control the EMs that shift the fovea in the Scanpath mode. These illusions provide for presence, the sense off being within an environment. They equally well lead to 'Telepresence,' the sense of being within a virtual display, especially if the operator is intensely interacting within an eye-hand and head-eye human-machine interface that provides for congruent visual and motor frames of reference. Interaction, immersion, and interest compel telepresence; intuitive functioning and engineered information flows can optimize human adaptation to the artificial new world of virtual reality, as virtual reality expands into entertainment, simulation, telerobotics, and scientific visualization and other professional work.
© (1995) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Lawrence W. Stark, Lawrence W. Stark, } "How virtual reality works: illusions of vision in "real" and virtual environments", Proc. SPIE 2411, Human Vision, Visual Processing, and Digital Display VI, (20 April 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.207546; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.207546
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