In this paper, we consider the measurement of modulation transfer function (MTF) by means of spatially random, noise-like targets. We begin our discussion with the concept of shift- invariance and the measurement of MTF in pixelated systems. We then proceed to the methods for generation of these noise targets, using both laser speckle and transparency-based techniques.
Glenn D. Boreman, Glenn D. Boreman,
"Modulation transfer function measurement using spatial noise targets", Proc. SPIE 2426, 9th Meeting on Optical Engineering in Israel, (6 June 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.211215; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.211215