24 May 1995 Measurement of three-dimensional normal vectors, principal curvatures, and wall thickness of the heart using cine-MRI
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We have developed a method for measuring the detailed in vivo three dimensional geometry of the left and right ventricles using cine-magnetic resonance imaging. From data in the form of digitized short axis outlines, the normal vectors, principal curvatures and directions, and wall thickness were computed. The method was evaluated on simulated ellipsoids and on human MRI data. Measurements of normal vectors and of wall thickness were very accurate in simulated data and appeared appropriate in patient data. On simulated data, measurements of the principal curvature k1 (corresponding approximately to the short axis direction of the left ventricle) and of principal directions were quite accurate, but measurements of the other principal curvature (k2) were less accurate. The reasons behind this are considered. We expect improvements in the accuracy with thinner slices and improved representation of the surface data. Gradient echo images were acquired from 8 dogs with a 1.5T system (Philips Gyroscan) at baseline and four months after closed chest experimentally produced mitral regurgitation (MR). The product (k1 + k2) X wall thickness averaged over all slices at end-diastole was significantly lower after surgery (n equals 8, p < 0.005). These geometry changes were consistent with the expected increase in wall stress after MR.
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Leslie Coghlan, H. Ross Singleton, L. J. Dell'Italia, C. E. Linderholm, G. M. Pohost, "Measurement of three-dimensional normal vectors, principal curvatures, and wall thickness of the heart using cine-MRI", Proc. SPIE 2433, Medical Imaging 1995: Physiology and Function from Multidimensional Images, (24 May 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.209703; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.209703

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