12 May 1995 Automatic segmentation of bones from digital hand radiographs
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The purpose of this paper is to develop a robust and accurate method that automatically segments phalangeal and epiphyseal bones from digital pediatric hand radiographs exhibiting various stages of growth. The algorithm uses an object-oriented approach comprising several stages beginning with the most general objects to be segmented, such as the outline of the hand from background, and proceeding in a succession of stages to the most specific object, such as a specific phalangeal bone from a digit of the hand. Each stage carries custom operators unique to the needs of that specific stage which will aid in more accurate results. The method is further aided by a knowledge base where all model contours and other information such as age, race, and sex, are stored. Shape models, 1-D wrist profiles, as well as an interpretation tree are used to map model and data contour segments. Shape analysis is performed using an arc-length orientation transform. The method is tested on close to 340 phalangeal and epiphyseal objects to be segmented from 17 cases of pediatric hand images obtained from our clinical PACS. Patient age ranges from 2 - 16 years. A pediatric radiologist preliminarily assessed the results of the object contours and were found to be accurate to within 95% for cases with non-fused bones and to within 85% for cases with fused bones. With accurate and robust results, the method can be applied toward areas such as the determination of bone age, the development of a normal hand atlas, and the characterization of many congenital and acquired growth diseases. Furthermore, this method's architecture can be applied to other image segmentation problems.
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Brent J. Liu, Brent J. Liu, Ricky K. Taira, Ricky K. Taira, Hyeonjoon Shim, Hyeonjoon Shim, Patricia Keaton, Patricia Keaton, } "Automatic segmentation of bones from digital hand radiographs", Proc. SPIE 2434, Medical Imaging 1995: Image Processing, (12 May 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.208739; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.208739

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