Digital display workstations are now commonly used for cross-sectional image viewing; however, few receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies have been performed to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of hard copy versus a workstation display for neuroradiology applications. We have performed an ROC study of film and 1K workstation based on the diagnostic performance of neuroradiology fellows to detect subtle intra- axial (high density (HD) and low density (LD)) and extra-axial (fluid, blood) lesions presented on computed tomographic (CT) images. An ROC analysis of the interpretation of approximately 200 CT images (1/2 normals and 1/2 abnormals) was performed by five experienced observers. The total number of abnormal images were equally divided among the three represented types of lesions (HD, LD, and extra-axial lesions). The images comprising the extra-axial lesion group were further subdivided into the following three distinct types: subdural hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and epidural hemorrhage. A fraction of the abnormal images were represented by more than one type of lesion, e.g., one abnormal image could contain both a HD and LD lesion. The digitized CT images were separated into four groups and read on the standard light box and a 1K workstation monitor equipped with simple image processing functions. Confidence ratings were scaled on a range from 0 (least confident) to 4 (most confident). Reader order sequences were randomized for each reader and for each modality. Each observer read from a total of eight different groups with a four-week intermission following the fourth group. The randomly assigned image number, lesion type and approximate location, incidental findings and comments, and confidence ratings were reported in individual worksheets for each image. ROC curves that were generated and analyzed for the various subgroups are presented in addition to the overall generalized jackknifed estimates of the grouped data. Also, 95% confidence intervals are presented for the differences in the area under the ROC curves. Although there were no statistically significant differences in the diagnostic accuracy between the original CT slice with HD and LD lesions viewed on the light box and on the 1K display workstation, the observers tended to record extra- axial lesions more frequently and with more confidence on the 1K display in comparison to the light box primarily due to the added advantage of adjusting the display window levels.