19 May 1995 Quantitative evaluation of in-plane deformation due to mask holding in x-ray lithography
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Abstract
We report the evaluation of tool-holding deformation using the displacement between the X-ray mask pattern and the pattern replicated on a wafer. The origins of the displacement between the mask and replicated pattern are wafer-holding deformation, run-out, thermal effect and mask-holding deformation. To estimate in-plane deformation (IPD) due to wafer holding, we develop a numerical method, where conservation of distance along a neutral plane is taken into consideration. Using this method, the displacement between the mask and replicated pattern becomes free of IPD due to the difference in wafer out-of-plane deformation (OPD). We also evaluate run-out and thermal effect using two kinds of masks with high and low absorber coverage, and obtained run-out values of 1.7 nm/micrometers horizontally and 2.8 nm/micrometers vertically. The residual displacement equals IPD due to mask holding on the exposure tool after eliminating the IPD due to wafer holding, run- out and thermal effect. We apply these procedures to the following two masks: Si substrates adhered to a frame along the entire periphery and those adhered to frame at one point. IPD due to mask holding with one- point adhesion is not observed within the accuracy of the analysis.
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Takashi Hifumi, Tohru Itoh, "Quantitative evaluation of in-plane deformation due to mask holding in x-ray lithography", Proc. SPIE 2437, Electron-Beam, X-Ray, EUV, and Ion-Beam Submicrometer Lithographies for Manufacturing V, (19 May 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.209155; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.209155
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KEYWORDS
Photomasks

Semiconducting wafers

Thermal effects

X-ray lithography

Distortion

Mirrors

Silicon

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