9 June 1995 Characterization and modeling of a positive-acting chemically amplified resist
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Abstract
Improvements in modeling of chemically amplified resists are necessary to increase the capability of doing `What if' simulations and to help interpret experimental data. One method to minimize the difference between modeled and experimental results is to use an underlying database of experimentally determined bulk dissolution rates as the source of the input parameters for the imaging engine of the lithographic model. In this paper, a R(E,z) to R(m,z) converter is discussed. The converter takes into account the amplification factor, kinetic effects and acid loss. The underlying data consist of a positive acting chemically amplified resist, XP-9402, that was processed using various post exposure bake conditions. With conversion to R(m,z), the energy of activation and Arrhenius coefficient for both the deprotection reaction and acid loss, the rate of photoacid formation, C, the chemical amplification factor for a given thermal dose and the ratio of deprotection rate constant to acid loss rate constant can be determined. These parameters are then used in the lithographic simulator PROLITH/2 version 4.1a. Results are used to understand lithographic results for photoresist that had been processed at different temperatures.
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John S. Petersen, Chris A. Mack, James W. Thackeray, Roger F. Sinta, Theodore H. Fedynyshyn, J. Michael Mori, Jeff D. Byers, Daniel A. Miller, "Characterization and modeling of a positive-acting chemically amplified resist", Proc. SPIE 2438, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XII, (9 June 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.210377; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.210377
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