9 June 1995 Reaction diffusion kinetics in deep-UV positive-tone resist systems
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Abstract
This paper examines the effects of latent acid formation and acid diffusion into dark regions of images in determining resist behavior during post exposure bake. Results of two new experiments, consisting of diffusion from an exposed into an unexposed resist film, the deliberate introduction of flare in patterned exposures, and re-examination of FTIR measurements of flood and patterned exposed samples show that a sharp diffusion front is the dominant mechanism determining resist image formation with post exposure bake times, and similar front velocities of 33 nm/min, 35 nm/min, and 31 nm/min were obtained for each experiment, respectively. In addition, quantitative modeling of toploss in unexposed samples due to acid diffusion from a top-to-top contact bake with an exposed sample show that Fickean diffusion cannot account for the experimental observations and suggest deprotection dependent diffusion fronts in positive DUV resists are important in modeling lithographic performance.
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Marco Antonio Zuniga, Gregory M. Wallraff, Andrew R. Neureuther, "Reaction diffusion kinetics in deep-UV positive-tone resist systems", Proc. SPIE 2438, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XII, (9 June 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.210375; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.210375
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