9 June 1995 Spectroscopic characterization of molecular interactions between DNQ-PACs and phenolic resins using selectively nitrogen-15 labeled DNQs
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Abstract
Interactions between diazonaphthoquinone (DNQ)-photoactive compounds (PACs) and phenolic resins with different degrees of ortho, ortho-bonding have been investigated using solid state nitrogen-15 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and vibrational (infrared and Raman) spectroscopic techniques. A specifically nitrogen-15 labeled PAC was synthesized to facilitate solid state nitrogen-15 NMR experimentation, and to resolve ambiguities in vibrational spectra. Comparison of vibrational spectra of the 15N-labeled PAC and its natural abundance 14N analog showed conclusively that Fermi resonance as well as hydrogen-boding resin-PAC interactions influence changes in the out-of-phase diazo stretching region near 2100 cm-1. Solid state nitrogen-15 NMR of the 15N-labeled PAC in poly(p-hydroxystyrene), in a m-cresol 3,5-xylenol novolak, and in a mainly m,p- cresol novolak showed the binding situation in the resins to be diffuse, but quite similar. Although the three resins examined are lithographically very different, the observed nitrogen- 15 shifts were small compared to the broadening of the resonances, and did not show major differences due to ortho, ortho-bonding effects.
© (1995) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Marie Borzo, Marie Borzo, Joseph J. Rafalko, Joseph J. Rafalko, Monica Joe, Monica Joe, Ralph R. Dammel, Ralph R. Dammel, M. Dalil Rahman, M. Dalil Rahman, Martine A. Ziliox, Martine A. Ziliox, } "Spectroscopic characterization of molecular interactions between DNQ-PACs and phenolic resins using selectively nitrogen-15 labeled DNQs", Proc. SPIE 2438, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XII, (9 June 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.210350; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.210350
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