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5 May 1995 Electromechanical constitutive behavior of various compositions of PZT and PLZT
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A critical step in the design and development of large strain ceramic actuators is the choice of material and composition. The number of available materials is rapidly growing. It now includes the range of soft to hard PZTs, relaxor ferroelectric PLZT and PMN.PT, and electric field induced phase transformation materials PLSnZT. The development of new materials is leading to ever larger strain, but there is a catch that device designers should be aware of. In some systems increased strain is achieved by developing compositions near thermodynamically metastable states, resulting in temperature, stress, and frequency dependence of the strain/electric-field coupling. This work examines the behavior of several compositions of PZT and 8/65/35 PLZT under combined stress and electric field. Additional data is available for a relaxor ferroelectric composition 8/65/35 PLZT (Lynch 1993, 1994). The results show that the addition of dopants to increase hardness reduces the piezoelectric coefficients, but it also increases both the electrical and mechanical yield points. This allows operation over a broader electric field and stress range with less internal heating due to dielectric loss. The materials that produce the largest strain and the least hysteresis in the presence of compressive stress are not necessarily those with the largest piezoelectric d333 coefficients.
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Christopher S. Lynch "Electromechanical constitutive behavior of various compositions of PZT and PLZT", Proc. SPIE 2442, Smart Structures and Materials 1995: Mathematics and Control in Smart Structures, (5 May 1995);

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