20 April 1995 Review of embedded particle tagging methods for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of composite materials and structures
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Abstract
Acceptance of advanced composites in both retrofit applications and new construction necessitates quality control (QC)/quality assurance (QA) and in-service monitoring techniques to ensure the performance and serviceability of the composites. A technology that enhances the inspectability of the advanced composites is the particle tagging method. The concept of particle tagging involves embedding micron-sized particles into materials, such as composites, or adhesive layers to make them an integral part of the host material. When interrogated by suitable instrumentation, the embedded particle sensors interact with their host material and generate certain types of measurable signatures. The signatures can be correlated with the material and structural conditions, such as internal stress states, voids, inclusions, state-of- cure, and delaminations. This paper presents a technology assessment of the current and emerging state-of-the-art tagging methods. The objective of this review is to provide a framework for further understanding the physics and mechanisms involved in using the tagging method for in-field nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of composite materials. Information concerning the development of this technique has been obtained from patents, publications, databases within Newman Library at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), and previous work and in-progress research at the Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures (CIMSS) at Virginia Tech. This paper includes a historic review of tagging techniques, a description of the tagging systems used for in-situ NDE of composites, and experimental results to date. The current and potential applications of this technique are also addressed. The analysis presented in this paper will assist in further efforts to develop the tagging approach that may be used as a new NDE technique for quality assurance of advanced composites.
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Su-Wei Zhou, Zaffir A. Chaudhry, Craig A. Rogers, Robert Quattrone, "Review of embedded particle tagging methods for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of composite materials and structures", Proc. SPIE 2444, Smart Structures and Materials 1995: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, (20 April 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.207675; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.207675
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