17 February 1995 Efficient address vector quantization based image coding scheme
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In this paper, a new vector quantization scheme for encoding images is presented. This proposed scheme is called multi-stage hierarchical address vector quantization (MSHAVQ) and it combines the concepts of the multi-stage VQ (MSVQ), of the hierarchical VQ (HVQ), and of the address VQ (AVQ). Its encoder consists of several stages where the hierarchical VQ (HVQ) or the address VQ (AVQ) are applied while the larger image blocks are divided into smaller sub-blocks. Digital decimation and interpolation techniques are used to reduce the blocking effect in the reconstructed images. The experimental results show that the bit rate of the last stages of the MSHAVQ are reduced by a factor of two or three when compared with a memoryless VQ system and that the proposed coding scheme yields to images having an SNR value about 35 db at bit rate around 0.9 bits per pixel.
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Chrissavgi Dre, Chrissavgi Dre, Thanos Stouraitis, Thanos Stouraitis, Costas E. Goutis, Costas E. Goutis, } "Efficient address vector quantization based image coding scheme", Proc. SPIE 2451, Advanced Image and Video Communications and Storage Technologies, (17 February 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.201204; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.201204

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