17 February 1995 Hybrid transmitter and receiver arrays for chip-to-chip and board-to-board free-space optical interconnects
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Abstract
A compact free space optical system that consists of novel hybrid source and receiver arrays for chip-to-chip and board-to-board optical communication is described. The hybrid source and receiver structures consist of the electronic chip, optoelectronic array and microlens attached and aligned using flip-chip bonding. The architecture is a three layered structure. Hemispherical shaped refractive microlens made of glass collimate the light from the microlasers and focus onto the photodiodes. Analysis was carried out using Gaussian beam propagation models and paraxial ray approximation matrices to analyze the hybrid optoelectronic arrays. The chip-to-chip distance was computed as a function of the microlaser beam waist. Furthermore, Huygen-Fresnel scalar diffraction was utilized to compute the optical crosstalk. Finally, the reliability of the system was evaluated under temperature cycling and flip-chip bonding process variations, which showed that such a system is potentially robust and non-sensitive to process variations.
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Aristos Christou, Chandrasekhar Pusarla, "Hybrid transmitter and receiver arrays for chip-to-chip and board-to-board free-space optical interconnects", Proc. SPIE 2451, Advanced Image and Video Communications and Storage Technologies, (17 February 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.201226; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.201226
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