12 June 1995 Development and operation of a material identification and discrimination imaging spectroradiometer
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Abstract
Many imaging applications require quantitative determination of a scene's spectral radiance. This paper describes a new system capable of real-time spectroradiometric imagery. Operating at a full-spectrum update rate of 30Hz, this imager is capable of collecting a 30 point spectrum from each of three imaging heads: the first operates from 400 nx m to 950 nm, with a 2% bandwidth; the second operates from 1.5 micrometers to 5.5 micrometers with a 1.5% bandwidth; the third operates from 5 micrometers to 12 micrometers , also at a 1.5% bandwidth. Standard image format is 256 X 256, with 512 X 512 possible in the VIS/NIR head. Spectra of up to 256 points are available at proportionately lower frame rates. In order to make such a tremendous amount of data more manageable, internal processing electronics perform four important operations on the spectral imagery data in real-time. First, all data in the spatial/spectral cube of data is spectro-radiometrically calibrated as it is collected. Second, to allow the imager to simulate sensors with arbitrary spectral response, any set of three spectral response functions may be loaded into the imager including delta functions to allow single wavelength viewing; the instrument then evaluates the integral of the product of the scene spectral radiances and the response function. Third, more powerful exploitation of the gathered spectral radiances can be effected by application of various spectral-matched filtering algorithms to identify pixels whose relative spectral radiance distribution matches a sought- after spectral radiance distribution, allowing materials-based identification and discrimination. Fourth, the instrument allows determination of spectral reflectance, surface temperature, and spectral emissivity, also in real-time. The spectral imaging technique used in the instrument allows tailoring of the frame rate and/or the spectral bandwidth to suit the scene radiance levels, i.e., frame rate can be reduced, or bandwidth increased to improve SNR when viewing low radiance scenes.
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Mark S. Dombrowski, Paul D. Willson, Clayton C. LaBaw, "Development and operation of a material identification and discrimination imaging spectroradiometer", Proc. SPIE 2480, Imaging Spectrometry, (12 June 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.210890; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.210890
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