12 June 1995 Normalized difference water index for remote sensing of vegetation liquid water from space
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Abstract
The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is equal to (NIR- RED)/(NIR+RED), has been widely used for remote sensing of vegetation for many years. One weakness of this index is that the reflectance of RED channel has no sensitivity to changes in lead area index changes when the leaf area index is equal to 1 or greater due to strong chlorophyll absorption near 0.67 micron. In this paper, another index, namely the normalized difference water index (NDWI), is proposed for remote sensing of vegetation liquid water from space. NDWI is equal to [R(0.86 micrometers ) - R(1.24 micrometers )]/[R(0.86 micrometers ) + R(1.24 micrometers )], where R represents the apparent reflectance. At 0.86 micrometers and 1.24 micrometers , vegetation canopies have similar scattering properties, but slightly different liquid water absorption. The scattering by vegetation canopies enhances the weak liquid water absorption at 1.24 micrometers . As a result, NDWI is sensitive to changes in liquid water content of vegetation canopies. Spectral imaging data acquired with Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over Jasper Ridge, California and Holland, Maine are used to demostrate the usefulness of NDWI. Comparisons between NDWI and NDVI images are also given. Because aerosol scattering effects in the 0.86-1.24 micrometers region are weak, NDWI is less sensitive to atmospheric effects that NDVI.
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Bo-Cai Gao, Bo-Cai Gao, } "Normalized difference water index for remote sensing of vegetation liquid water from space", Proc. SPIE 2480, Imaging Spectrometry, (12 June 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.210877; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.210877
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