This work presents an approach to the detection of weaving defects by optical correlation. The principle of the method is to realize a global comparison by optical inter-correlation between the flawless reference fabric and the fabric which one wants to test for defects. It requires the recording on a holographic plate of the diffraction spectrum of the flawless fabric, according to the principle of analog Fourier holograms. The hologram thus recorded represents a memory for a type of tissue without defects. It constitutes the reference element constantly compared to the spectrum of the fabric which is searched for defects. In the absence of defect the autocorrelation function is obtained. The amplitude and shape of the correlation function change when a defect appears.