This paper is intended to familiarize the sensor design engineer with the capabilities of distributed interactive simulation (DIS) to support the design and test of sensor system. We define DIS terms and then discuss what DIS does to support the design and development process. Fist, DIS provides access to reusable simulation and network components that reduce the cost of tests. Second, it makes user personnel available to interact in the simulation without the expense of bringing the participants to the test site. Third, DIS has reusable computer- generated forces that provide the engineer with sufficient threats and friendlies to load the sensor system in an affordable exercise. Examples of how an engineer would design a study to take advantage of DIS capabilities are provided.
The systems engineering aspects of establishing and operating a distributed interactive simulation (DIS) environment are of interest to those that have been through the process. They should also be of interest to those new to the process so to avoid repeating the same mistakes over and over. This paper presents lessons learned from developing, integrating, and operating the War Breaker systems engineering and evaluation (SE&E) program.
Field instrumentation represents a class of distributed interactive simulation (DIS) participants which consists of real people operating real equipment, an application domain known as live simulations. These simulation have been conducted for many years at the nation's military training centers and test and evaluation ranges. Though in the past these activities have been carried out with great success, recent initiatives have lead to the desire to perform exercises where these live participants interact with simulated participants. This represents a formidable challenge and will be successfully addressed only if the major problems are clearly understood. This paper lists and describes the most significant issues that have been identified by the DIS Field Instrumentation working group.
Several new architectural components are needed by distributed interactive simulation (DIS) to support new and expanding distributed interactive simulation applications. The elements defined include: organization of DIS protocols into groups to provide for basic interoperability and optional interoperability associated with different functional domains; a supporting message structure that is ore efficient and flexible than the one currently defined in the DIS standards; a data element dictionary to hold the definitions of the lowest order elements of information exchanged between simulation applications in a DIS exercise; and a protocol catalog to hold the definitions of the protocols used to exchange information between simulation applications in a DIS exercise.
This paper presents some lessons learned from simulating the operation of a command center in distributed interactive simulations (DIS). We present the design of the Booz Allen Command Center Systems Interface (C2SI) in terms of its functional architecture as well as the technologies used in its implementation. We discuss the design of the distributed component interfaces based on cooperating software agent pairs. We discuss aspects of several issues in simulating command and control systems in the ADS/DIS environment, namely, interoperation of constructive and virtual simulation, situation awareness, communication with adjacent C2 entities, control of subordinate entities and external sensors, terrain/environmental data management, and data collection for after-action reporting.
Distributed interactive simulation (DIS) or SIMNET has become the primary environment for force-on-force training, but realistic high-resolution IR effects for DIS have been lacking. Toward that end, the Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate is currently developing an optimized synthetic infrared interactive simulation (OSIRIS) which incorporates real-time atmospheric and sensor effects into a high-resolution synthetic thermal scene for ground and air applications. OSIRIS is based on first-principles models designed to enhance the realism of IR simulations, and includes an MRT-based fidelity model, and IR background-signature texture model, and a dedicated real-time sensor simulator based on FLIR92 MTF and noise modeling.
In today's environment, the transportation and maintenance of military forces is nearly as important as combat operations. Rapid deployment to regions of low-intensity conflict will become a very common training scenario for the U.S. military. Thus it is desirable to apply distributed simulation technology to train logistics personnel in their combat support roles. Currently, distributed interactive simulation (DIS) only contains rudimentary logistics protocols. This paper introduces new protocols designed to handle the logistics problem. The Newtonian protocol takes a physics-based approach to modeling interactions on the simulation network. This protocol consists of a family of protocol data units (PDUs) which are used to communicate forces in different circumstances. The protocol implements a small set of physical relations. This represents a flexible and general mechanism to describe battlefield interactions between network entities. The migratory object protocol (MOP) family addresses the transfer of control. General mechanisms provide the means to simulate resupply, repair, and maintenance of entities at any level of abstraction (individual soldier to division). It can also increase the fidelity of mine laying, enable handover of weapons for terminal guidance, allow for the distribution of aggregate-level simulation entities, provide capabilities for the simulation of personnel, etc.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and categorizations of distributed interactive simulation (DIS) testing. It discusses the historical perspective of testing and the thrust for future testing.
This paper provides a basis for planning, designing, and testing distributed exercises and experiments. Lessons learned from the Synthetic Theater of War--Europe (STOW-E) exercise conducted in November 1994 are incorporated to provide system engineers/integrators areas of consideration in the design and testing of distributed interactive simulation (DIS) exercises and experiments. Issues involving DIS compliance in accordance with IEEE 1278.1, and interoperability and compatibility testing measures are also discussed. Design and test issues for live, virtual, and constructive simulations are considered. This paper assumes basic knowledge of DIS principles.
This paper describes the integration testing process that has been used successfully to execute distributed interactive simulation (DIS) exercises and experiments as a part of the War Breaker Systems engineering and evaluation program.
This paper includes a definition of an open-ended architecture that is used to automatically link multiple, dissimilar software models and simulators. Computerized Model Management and Development Systems (COMMANDS) is an automated model management system. It is designed to manage the configuration and execution of multiple simulations through executive control in a user-friendly environment. COMMANDS will allow the user to specify the interfaces and execution sequence of modules identified in a database. The order of execution of the modules is specified by the use and controlled during run time by a simulation drive. The results of the executed model (simulation run) are stored in a database for post-simulation retrieval and analysis.
Illgen Simulation Technologies, Inc., has been working interactive verification and validation programs for the past six years. As a result, they have evolved a methodology that has been adopted and successfully implemented by a number of different verification and validation programs. This methodology employs a unique case of computer-assisted software engineering (CASE) tools to reverse engineer source code and produce analytical outputs (flow charts and tables) that aid the engineer/analyst in the verification and validation process. We have found that the use of CASE tools saves time,which equate to improvements in both schedule and cost. This paper will describe the ISTI-developed methodology and how CASe tools are used in its support. Case studies will be discussed.