Chemical sensors are analytical systems for the evaluation of compound- or ion-specific or - selective signals produced by specific or selective chemical reactions taking place at the interface between the chemically modified sensor surface and the substrate. The well known electrochemical sensing schemes have greatly contributed that sensors are considered now as the 'third supporting pillar of analytical chemistry' besides chromatography and spectroscopy. The aim of this paper is to describe the novel capabilities of chemical modified IR-transparent fibers as chemical IR-sensors for the on-line analysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons and organic compounds in aqueous solutions and gaseous mixtures, glucose, and sucrose in aqueous solution as developed in our laboratory. Moreover, the relative merits of this new method wil be depicted in comparison to other sensing techniques. Optical fiber sensors are novel analysis systems, based on molecular spectroscopy in the UV/VIS/IR-range. They benefit from the tremendous development in the field of optical fibers, an offspring of the telecommunication industry and the electronic revolution during the last few years. With the development of new materials besides the well known quartz fibers for the UV/VIS/NIR-range the optical window for fiber optic sensors was enlarged from 0,2 to 20 micrometers recently. The fiber length was increased recently to up to 2 meters for silver halides and approximately 10 meters for chalcogenides. New applications for environmental, food, and clinical sensing as well as process analysis are the driving force for modern research in IR-optical fiber sensors using mainly sapphire (Al2O3), chalcogenide (As-Se-Te) and silver halide (AgBr/AgCl) fibers and flow injection analysis (FIA) systems. Few representative examples for each of the various optical sensor types will be presented. Particular attention will be given to the use of silver halide fibers for the simultaneous determination of traces of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water and to FIA-systems for the process analysis of beverages.