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20 June 1995 Conical thin foil x-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication
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Abstract
For the last decade we have been developing conical approximation of the Wolter I type thin foil/shell grazing incidence x-ray mirrors. Several missions have come out of these developments, e.g., BBXRT, and Astro-D (a U.S. - Japanese collaboration now known as ASCA), and Sodart on board SPECTRUM-X-GAMMA in the near future. The spatial resolution of this type of telescope is an order of magnitude worse than the theoretical limit, which hosts a great potential of improving these high throughput and relatively inexpensive x- ray instruments. In summary, x-ray image can be improved by reducing surface roughness and profile error for specularly reflecting x-rays in a better defined direction. The conventional way, coating reflecting surface of substrates with a thin layer of acrylic lacquer, was not effective in smoothing the surface roughness in spatial wavelength longer than a few microns. The profile of the foils was controlled by forming the substrate under certain mechanical pressure and/or combining heat treatment, but very often, the process is detrimental to the surface quality of roughness in millimeter wavelength. We report a new development of using epoxy replication technique on smooth pyrex mandrels. The results show very encouraging improvements over the conventional method. The half power diameter (HPD) of the x-ray image has dropped from 3.5 arcmins to 1.0 arcmin, and the extended image blur, i.e. the tail part of the encircled energy function (EEF), which was attributed to the roughness at higher spatial frequencies, was drastically reduced by 10 times. In this report we summarize the new technique in progress and the direction for future development.
© (1995) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Yang Soong, Lalit Jalota, and Peter J. Serlemitsos "Conical thin foil x-ray mirror fabrication via surface replication", Proc. SPIE 2515, X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, (20 June 1995); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.212577
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