25 September 1995 Immersion lenses for low-voltage SEM and LEEM
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Spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients Cs and Cc of various immersion lenses for low voltage SEM and LEEM are calculated. The minimum values of magnetic immersion lens are Cs equals Cc equals 1 mm. For the combined electrostatic and magnetic lenses, those values are at most Cs equals 1 mm and Cc equals 0.7 mm, when the specimen is free from the electrostatic field. When the specimen is immersed in the electrostatic field, those values reduce to Cs equals 0.2 mm and Cc equals 0.1 mm at 1 kV.
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Katsushige Tsuno, Katsushige Tsuno, Nobuo Handa, Nobuo Handa, Sunao Matsumoto, Sunao Matsumoto, } "Immersion lenses for low-voltage SEM and LEEM", Proc. SPIE 2522, Electron-Beam Sources and Charged-Particle Optics, (25 September 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.221578; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.221578

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