18 September 1995 High-power excimer laser-generated plasma source for x-ray microlithography
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Abstract
This paper describes a high-intensity, high pulse-repetition-rate picosecond-pulse excimer laser system and plasma x-ray source, which generates up to 3 W of average x-ray power, into 2(pi) steradians, in a spectral band from 10-16 angstrom. The XeCl excimer laser system output, at 308 nm, consists of a train of 16 pulses, each approximately 45 ps in duration and spaced by 2 ns. The energy of each pulse in the train is approximately 25 mJ, and the pulse-train repetition rate is 60 Hz. Each pulse in the train is focused to a spot of < 10 micrometers diameter on a metal tape target, resulting in an intensity of 1 X 1015 W cm-2. Spectral and spatial characteristics of the x-ray emission have been studied, and the laser energy to x-ray dose conversion efficiency has been measured in an experiment which simulates the x-ray lithography process. Lithographic efficiencies of 5.9% and 10.9% have been measured for copper and stainless steel targets, respectively.
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Harry Shields, Michael F. Powers, I. C. Edmond Turcu, Ian N. Ross, Juan R. Maldonado, Philip G. Burkhalter, D. A. Newman, "High-power excimer laser-generated plasma source for x-ray microlithography", Proc. SPIE 2523, Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation II, (18 September 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.220972; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.220972
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KEYWORDS
X-rays

X-ray lithography

Picosecond phenomena

Copper

Excimer lasers

Lithography

X-ray sources

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