15 September 1995 Solvent and salt effects on the morphological structure of polyaniline
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Extensive gel permeation chromatography coupled with surface structure and mechanical property measurements clearly indicate that polyaniline in the base form has a tendency to aggregate or agglomerate as a result of intermolecular hydrogen-bonding. The aggregation is present in the solid state powder. The degree of aggregation is found to be dependent on the prior history of the base powder material. In solution, the degree of aggregation is found to be dependent on the solvent, concentration, and temperature. As the solvent becomes a better solvent for the base material, the less aggregated is the structure. LiCl complexes the polymer via a 'pseudo-doping' process, thereby disrupting the internal polyaniline hydrogen-bonding and as a result, deaggregates the structure. As the polymer is deaggregated to different levels by a solvent or by LiCl, the individual chains can better be solvated and thus a conformational change occurs. The chains adapt a more expanded coil type of conformation. The degree of expansion depends on the solvation power of the solvent. These morphological changes have a dramatic effect on the surface structure properties of polyaniline as well as on bulk properties such as mechanical properties and UV/visible/near IR absorbance. As the level of deaggregation and subsequent chain extension increases, the surface structure becomes smoother, the glass transition temperature decreases and a significant red shift is observed in the (lambda) maximum of the absorbance. It is also found that the LiCl induced morphological changes result in increased conductivity upon doping polyaniline base with protonic acid.
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Marie Angelopoulos, Marie Angelopoulos, Yun-Hsin Liao, Yun-Hsin Liao, Bruce Furman, Bruce Furman, Teresita O. Graham, Teresita O. Graham, } "Solvent and salt effects on the morphological structure of polyaniline", Proc. SPIE 2528, Optical and Photonic Applications of Electroactive and Conducting Polymers, (15 September 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.219547; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.219547

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