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11 August 1995 Recent progress in macro axial gradient index optics (it's time to rethink gradients)
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Abstract
Lenses whose material is represented by a line on the glass map (nd equals f((upsilon) d)), as opposed by a point, like homogeneous glass, open the door to a wide variety of optical design applications incorporating entire lenses of axial gradient refractive material (GRADIUM). This material essentially gives bi-aspheric performance to lenses with spherical surfaces and exhibits a controlled gradient in both index and dispersion. Thus, the applications for this material range from the simple singlet lens used for laser applications, in which spherical aberration is eliminated, to complex multi-element lens systems where improved overall performance is desired. The fusion/diffusion process that produces this material, is surprisingly simple, repeatable, and applicable to mass production. The advantage of GRADIUM and its accessibility in commercially available lens design programs, (ZEMAX, CODE V and OSLO), provides optical designers with the opportunity to push performance further than with conventional optics.
© (1995) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Paul K. Manhart and Xiaojie Xu "Recent progress in macro axial gradient index optics (it's time to rethink gradients)", Proc. SPIE 2537, Novel Optical Systems Design and Optimization, (11 August 1995); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.216388
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