23 June 1995 Phase-conjugate holographic system for high-resolution particle image velocimetry through thick-walled curved windows
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A phase-conjugate holographic measurement system has been developed for the study of 3D fluid velocity fields. The recording system produces 3D particle images with resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, accuracy, and derived velocity fields that are comparable to high-quality 2D photographic PIV (particle image velocimetry). The high image resolution is accomplished by using low f-number optics, a fringe stabilized processing chemistry, and a phase conjugate play-back geometry that compensates for aberrations in the imaging system. In addition, the system employs a reference multiplexed, off-axis geometry for determining velocity directions using the cross-correlation technique, and a stereo camera geometry for determining the three velocity components. The combination of the imaging and reconstruction sub-systems make the analysis of volumetric PIV domains feasible. Recently, a new geometry for the HPIV system has been developed for imaging flows through thick-walled, curved windows. In the older geometry, there have been two sources inhibiting the use of windows: window scattering and window-induced aberrations. In the new system, these difficulties are avoided using side- scatter illumination of the particles and phase-conjugate reconstruction with a substitute window in place.
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Donald H. Barnhart, Donald H. Barnhart, Ronald J. Adrian, Ronald J. Adrian, Carl Menhart, Carl Menhart, George C. Papen, George C. Papen, } "Phase-conjugate holographic system for high-resolution particle image velocimetry through thick-walled curved windows", Proc. SPIE 2545, Interferometry VII: Applications, (23 June 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.212642; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.212642

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