26 September 1995 New avalanche device with the ability of analog few-photon pulse detection
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The task of analog few-photon pulse detection and measurement can be solved if two main conditions are carried out: the high quantum efficiency is realized and low noise mechanism of the internal amplification is used. Traditional facilities do not allow to perform both of these conditions in one device. So vacuum photomultiplier has high gain and low noise but its quantum efficiency is not rather high. Another wide spread device-avalanche photodiode having sufficiently high quantum efficiency displays very rapid rise of noise factor with gain increasing. In this report the ability of analog few-photon detection (AFPD) mode realizing by the new type of photodetectors--avalanche with negitive feedback (ANF) photodiodes is appreciated. As known single carrier avalanche process with negative feedback (SC ANF), when negative feedback governs the avalanche process initiated by one separate charge carrier, have the main features similar to those of 'ideal' amplifier: high gain, low noise, and fastness. Considering that the SC ANF photodetector as semi-conductor device has also high quantum efficiency it may be the adequate facility for AFPD in principle. In the report the properties of SC ANF process determined the characteristics and parameters of high sensitive analog photodetector such as gain, amplification fluctuations and efficiency, rise time are demonstrated and discussed. The analog detection of a several-photoelectron pulse is illustrated.
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Vitaly E. Shubin, Dmitry A. Shushakov, "New avalanche device with the ability of analog few-photon pulse detection", Proc. SPIE 2550, Photodetectors and Power Meters II, (26 September 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.221409; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.221409

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