Active contours, known as snakes, have been widely used for medical images. In this paper a new algorithm for 3D segmentation is proposed based on the snake technique, which can include both gradient and textural features as image forces and a new external force to improve the sensitivity of a normal snake against image noise. After the contour has been well defined on one slice of a volume data by a 2D segmentation method, the contours of the subsequent slices can be obtained through our modified snake method. Experiments on medical volume images have proved the validity of the algorithm.
"Interactive surface segmentation for medical images", Proc. SPIE 2564, Applications of Digital Image Processing XVIII, (22 August 1995); doi: 10.1117/12.217438; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.217438