Hybrid fiber-coax technology allows one network to deliver both traditional telephony as well as a host of broadband services including broadcast TV, cable TV, interactive TV, video-on- demand, enhanced pay-per-view, etc. This paper presents an overview of hybrid fiber-coax architecture including discussion of the components for transmission of telephony and broadband services from the headend/central office to the home. The components and architecture of an HFC system are compared to traditional telephony. An HFC system can be broken into 4 major sections: headend/central office and interoffice network, a feeder system, a distribution system, and a customer interface. The components within each of these sections include: local digital switches, host digital terminals, broadband and narrowband optical transmitters and receivers, optical nodes, power nodes, network interface units, set top terminals and several types of passives. The function of these components is reviewed as are spectrum allocation, and signal flow.