19 January 1996 Applications and mechanisms of laser tissue welding in 1995: review
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For several years laser tissue welding has appeared as a new alternative technique for tissue repair instead of manual sutures. It has been evaluated in different experimental models including blood vessels, skin, nerve, intestine, bile ducts, vas and fallopian tube. Different types of lasers with different sets of parameters have been used: carbon dioxide laser, Nd:YAG laser, argon and KTP laser and diode laser. Recent trends in tissue fusion promote near infrared lasers at low irradiance with intraoperative enhancement of light absorption by specific chromophores. As far as microvascular reconstruction is concerned, successful clinical applications are currently published. Although the molecular mechanism involved in welding is not completely understood, the tissular fusion is considered as a thermal phenomena. In laser assisted microvascular anastomosis, the best experimental model, the ultrastructural examination of arteries anastomosed with Nd:YAG, argon or diode laser revealed interdigitation of collagen fibers which appeared swollen, with modified striation and organized in irregular network. The mechanism of welding involving the formation of non covalent bands between collagen strands, is generally induced by a temperature of 60 - 63 degrees Celsius well adapted to collagen denaturation.
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Guilhem Godlewski, Guilhem Godlewski, Michel Prudhomme, Michel Prudhomme, Jing Tang, Jing Tang, } "Applications and mechanisms of laser tissue welding in 1995: review", Proc. SPIE 2623, Medical Applications of Lasers III, (19 January 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.230345; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.230345

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