19 January 1996 Effects of Nd:YAG laser radiation in cultured porcine vertebral disc tissue
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Nd:Yag laser radiation is used for the treatment of protrusion of intervertebral discs. It is known that laser radiation leads to coagulation, vaporization and carbonization of the disk. Little is known about the early changes in vertebral discs after laser radiation. Therefore, we exposed cadaveric porcine vertebral discs by Nd:YAG laser radiation immediately after death. The discs were quartered and either formalin fixed after laser radiation or kept in culture for 1, 4 and 7 days and then formalin fixed. Immunohistochemistry was performed with antibodies directed against vimentin and amyloid precursor protein (APP). Results showed a jerky leak of notochordial remnant cells and mucopolysaccharides at the distal end of the application needle during laser radiation, which was interpreted as a bursting extrusion of damaged but not vaporized tissue. Histology and immunohistochemistry revealed an incomplete loss of nucleus pulposus and a large, almost complete necrosis of the notochordial remnant cells. In surviving notochordial remnant cells after laser radiation a slight increase of vimentin and APP could be seen without any other cellular reactions. The annulus fibrosus showed no significant changes except a defect with a small necrosis zone at the site of the application needle. Therefore, it can be concluded that Nd:YAG laser radiation leads to an increased volume reduction by the leak of nucleus pulposus and to a slight cellular reaction of surviving notochordal remnant cells detectable by vimentin and APP increase.
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Dietmar R. Thal, Dietmar R. Thal, Klaus Werkmann, Klaus Werkmann, Fouad Leheta, Fouad Leheta, Ralf Schober, Ralf Schober, Peter Ulrich, Peter Ulrich, } "Effects of Nd:YAG laser radiation in cultured porcine vertebral disc tissue", Proc. SPIE 2623, Medical Applications of Lasers III, (19 January 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.230343; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.230343

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