10 April 1996 Application of avalanche photodiodes to confocal and confocal florescence microscopy
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We describe the use of avalanche photodiodes as solid state photon counters in scanning confocal microscopy. Photon counters have been of limited use for moderate-to-rapid image acquisition speeds due to comparatively low saturation count rates. Several approaches offer the promise of real-time photon-limited image acquisition using off-the-shelf components and dark count rates which are fully adequate for imaging. We characterize in some detail a gated NPN switch/pulse-bias circuit which offers excellent, economical performance over a wide wavelength range, and discuss specific imaging applications.
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Thomas G. Brown, Thomas G. Brown, Stephen T. Kreger, Stephen T. Kreger, "Application of avalanche photodiodes to confocal and confocal florescence microscopy", Proc. SPIE 2655, Three-Dimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing III, (10 April 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.237495; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.237495

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