29 March 1996 Effect of TIJ heater surface topology on vapor bubble nucleation
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We show a correlation between the surface roughness of tantalum heaters in water with the temperature at which nucleation occurs at a set of fixed sites on the heater surface. The smoothest heater displayed the highest nucleation and vapor sheet formation temperatures. Experiments using degassed water indicate that some of the specific surface sites are due to air entrapped in small crevices in the tantalum. The high temperature (> 272 degree(s)C) for the nucleation indicate that the air entrapment sites are on the order of 1 - 4 nm in diameter.
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Michael P. O'Horo, Michael P. O'Horo, John R. Andrews, John R. Andrews, Russel Gillmeister, Russel Gillmeister, } "Effect of TIJ heater surface topology on vapor bubble nucleation", Proc. SPIE 2658, Color Imaging: Device-Independent Color, Color Hard Copy, and Graphic Arts, (29 March 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.236989; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.236989

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