15 March 1996 Digital watermarking
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This paper presents a process able to mark digital pictures with an invisible and undetectable secret information, called the watermark. This process can be the basis of a complete copyright protection system. The process first step consists in producing a secret image. The first part of the secret resides in basic information that forms a binary image. That picture is then frequency modulated. The second part of the secret is precisely the frequencies of the carriers. Both secrets depend on the identity of the copyright owner and on the original picture contents. The obtained picture is called the stamp. The second step consists in modulating the amplitude of the stamp according to a masking criterion stemming from a model of human perception. That too theoretical criterion is corrected by means of morphological tools helping to locate in the picture the places where the criterion is supposed not to match. This is followed by the adaptation of the level of the stamp at that place. The so formed watermark is then added to the original to ensure its protection. That watermarking method allows the detection of watermarked pictures in a stream of digital images, only with the knowledge of the picture owner's secrets.
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Jean-Francois Delaigle, Jean-Francois Delaigle, Christophe De Vleeschouwer, Christophe De Vleeschouwer, Benoit M. M. Macq, Benoit M. M. Macq, } "Digital watermarking", Proc. SPIE 2659, Optical Security and Counterfeit Deterrence Techniques, (15 March 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.235449; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.235449

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