7 May 1996 In-vivo laser-induced bubbles in the primate eye with femtosecond pulses
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Threshold measurements for laser-induced breakdown (LIB) and bubble generation for femtosecond laser pulsewidths have been made in vivo for rhesus monkey eyes. These LIB thresholds are compared with model-predicted thresholds for water and minimum visible lesion thresholds in Dutch Belted rabbit and rhesus monkey eyes. LIB thresholds in biological materials including vitreous, normal saline, tap water, and ultrapure water have been measured and reported using an artificial eye. We have recorded on video the first LIB causing bubble formation in any eye in vivo using albino rabbit eyes, pigmented rabbit eyes, and rhesus monkey eyes. External optics were used to focus the image within the vitreous and the bubbles generated were clearly formed anterior to the retina within the vitreous humor. The length of time that the bubbles are visible depends on the pulse energy delivered and may last for several seconds. However, for pulse energies near thresholds, the bubbles have a very short lifetime and may be seen on the video for only one frame. The plasma formation at the breakdown site acts as a limiting mechanism for energy transmission and may explain why high-energy femtosecond pulses at energies up to 100 microjoules sometimes do not cause severe damage to the retina. This fact may also explain why it is so difficult to product hemmorrhagic lesions in either the rabbit or primate eye with 100-femtosecond laser pulses.
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Clarence P. Cain, Clarence P. Cain, Cheryl Dawn DiCarlo, Cheryl Dawn DiCarlo, Gary D. Noojin, Gary D. Noojin, Rodney E. Amnotte, Rodney E. Amnotte, Benjamin A. Rockwell, Benjamin A. Rockwell, William P. Roach, William P. Roach, "In-vivo laser-induced bubbles in the primate eye with femtosecond pulses", Proc. SPIE 2681, Laser-Tissue Interaction VII, (7 May 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.239599; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.239599

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