10 January 1996 UV-written Y-splitter in Ge-doped silica
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A three-layer silica structure was grown on a 4-inch silicon wafer using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The 2.5 micrometers thick core layer is surrounded by 12 micrometers thick buffer and cladding layers. An aluminum layer, deposited on the cladding glass and patterned with the desired waveguide structures, serves as a mask for the UV exposure. An excimer laser operating on ArF giving an energy of 60 mJ/pulse was used to expose the sample to the total fluence of 4800 J/cm2 of 193 nm light. The rise in refractive index is estimated to be around 3 - 10-3 without hydrogen loading or any other kind of sensitization. The Y-splitters were evaluated on an automatic alignment setup using a semiconductor laser operating at 1542 nm. The splitting ratio was measured to be 1:1 at 1542 nm and 1:0.95 at 1310 nm. We measured the loss in the splitter to be 5 dB (fiber to fiberneglecting the splitting). The minimum coupling loss from fiber to waveguide was theoretically calculated to be 1.1 dB, leaving the propagation loss to be smaller than 2.8 dB/cm. The same value was measured for straight waveguides next to the couplers, indicating no measurable excess loss induced by the Y-splitters.
© (1996) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Joerg Huebner, Christian V. Poulsen, Jens Engholm Pedersen, Mogens Rysholt Poulsen, Thomas Feuchter, Martin Kristensen, "UV-written Y-splitter in Ge-doped silica", Proc. SPIE 2695, Functional Photonic and Fiber Devices, (10 January 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.229934; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.229934

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