31 May 1996 Finite element modeling of the transient response of smart structures
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A finite element (FE) formulation is presented for modeling the dynamical response of smart structures with embedded piezoelectric ceramic devices subjected to transient loading. The FEM formulation presented is based on a variational principle using the concept of virtual work. An unconditionally stable method ((alpha) -method) is utilized for the direct integration of the equations of motion and can be put in the form of a 3-step linear multistep method of second order equations. A thin cantilever plate with piezoelectric devices is investigated to show the feasibility of the analysis and numerical simulation. The code employs 20 node isoparametric 3D piezoelectric elements, flat-shell elements and transition elements at the interface of the piezoelectric devices and the plate. Under a given external loading, the structure and the embedded sensors deform and the voltage response of the sensor can be calculated as a function of time. Such calculations can be useful as a design tool for smart structures.
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Young-Hun Lim, Young-Hun Lim, Vasundara V. Varadan, Vasundara V. Varadan, Vijay K. Varadan, Vijay K. Varadan, } "Finite element modeling of the transient response of smart structures", Proc. SPIE 2715, Smart Structures and Materials 1996: Mathematics and Control in Smart Structures, (31 May 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.240802; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.240802

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