27 May 1996 Nanolithography by scanning probe stimulated development of photoresists
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Scanning probe microscopes are promising tools for fabrication of nanometer size structures (nanolithography) since the use of near field interactions avoids problems associated with conventional lithography techniques, like the restriction of the limit of minimum structure sizes by wavelengths, or diffraction phenomena. Several applications of scanning probe microscopes to nanolithography are reported, and even though these instruments have been successfully used for sub-micron lithography, their application is limited to selected surfaces, materials, and low thicknesses of the resist layers. A new technique combining both extremely high resolution and the ability of 'exposing' conventional e-beam resists is lithography with a scanning force microscope in liquid environment. The substrate with the resist is placed in development liquid, and the microscope tip is scanned in direct contact with the surface leading to a local solution of the resist restricted to the small contact area between tip and surface. First experiments had been carried out leading to minimal structure sizes in conventional e-beam resists of 94 nm line width, and to maximum areas of approximately 20 micrometers by 20 micrometers .
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Ludwig J. Balk, Ludwig J. Balk, Paul M. Koschinski, Paul M. Koschinski, Gero B. M. Fiege, Gero B. M. Fiege, Frank J. Reineke, Frank J. Reineke, } "Nanolithography by scanning probe stimulated development of photoresists", Proc. SPIE 2723, Electron-Beam, X-Ray, EUV, and Ion-Beam Submicrometer Lithographies for Manufacturing VI, (27 May 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.240493; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.240493

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