27 May 1996 Pattern-density-dependent contrast in commonly used dose-equalization schemes
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In this paper we explore the pattern density dependent contrast which results from the non- Gaussian nature of the energy deposition profile in exposed resist. A long, spatially extended tail on the actual beam energy deposition profile degrades exposure contrast over that which is predicted by two-Gaussian models. As most background dose equalization schemes, such as GHOST, depend critically on the two-Gaussian model for their success, these schemes cannot correct for background dose variation caused by these long tails. This paper shows that this effect can lead to significant degradation of critical dimension control. A strategy to minimize this degradation based on test structure evaluation is proposed.
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Martin C. Peckerar, Martin C. Peckerar, Christie R. Marrian, Christie R. Marrian, } "Pattern-density-dependent contrast in commonly used dose-equalization schemes", Proc. SPIE 2723, Electron-Beam, X-Ray, EUV, and Ion-Beam Submicrometer Lithographies for Manufacturing VI, (27 May 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.240463; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.240463

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