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14 June 1996 Completely water-processable and other chemically amplified resists from maleic anhydride copolymers
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A new family of resists is presented that makes possible an all-water (sub)micron scale lithography. It was found by infrared (IR) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) studies, that polymers with vicinal carboxylic acid moieties undergo thermo-acid-catalyzed dehydration and anhydride formation at a lower temperature, than upon simple uncatalyzed thermolysis. Carboxylic acid moieties allow the use of water for spin-coating, developing, and stripping. For example, ethylene- or methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride copolymers with a photo- acid generator can be spin-coated from water to form clear films. Mild heating at 110 - 10 degrees Celsius for 20 - 60 s before and after greater than or equal to 25 mJ/cm2 of UV irradiation, produces a latent image that is developable in water within seconds. Similar acid- catalyzable alcohol elimination was observed with some monoesters, for example poly(styrene- alt-maleic acid monoethyl ester). The difference in reactivity and hydrophobicity between exposed and non-exposed areas also follows functional developing, e.g., the introduction of polyamino compounds or metal ions selectively into non-exposed resist areas.
© (1996) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Alexander M. Vekselman and Graham D. Darling "Completely water-processable and other chemically amplified resists from maleic anhydride copolymers", Proc. SPIE 2724, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIII, (14 June 1996);

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